Installation, Storage and Compute With Windows server 2016

This is my personal study notes for the book https://www.amazon.com/70-740-Installation-Storage-Compute-Windows/dp/0735698821 and exam https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/learning/exam-70-740.aspx. This is a supplement book that should be used with other materials to prepare you for the exam.

Chapter 1 Key Notes:

Install Windows Servers in host and compute environment.

Skills in this Chapter:

  • Install, upgradeI, migrate servers and workloads.
  • Install and configure Nano Server
  • Create, manage, and maintain images for deployment

Skills 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads

  • Which Windows server should you install?
  • Which installation option should you use?
  • Which roles and features does the server need?
  • What virtualization strategy should you use?

Minimum hardware Requirement for installing Windows Server 2016:

  • Processor: 1.4Ghz 64bit
  • Ram: 512 MB ECC for server core, 2GB WCC for server with Desktop Experience.
  • Disk Space: 32Gb bare Minimum on a SATA or comparable drive
  • Network adapter: Ethernet, with gigabit throughput
  • Monitor: Super VGA (1024 X 768) or higher
  • Keyboard and mouse
  • Internet (Activation, Windows updates)

Windows Server 2016 does not support the use of ATA, PATA, IDE, or EIDE interfaces fot boot, page, or data drives. Additional space is need when installing Desktop Experience, additional roles, computer has more than 16GB or more of RAM. The additional disk space is required for paging, hibernation, and dump files.

Maximum hardware and Virtualization limits:

Previously processor maximum were at one time measured in the number of sockets, now it has changed to numbers of cores and logical processors.

The maximum hardware configuration for Windows Server 2016 are as follows:

  • Processor: A server host supports up to 512 logical processors (LPs) if Hyper-v is installed.
  • Memory: Up to 24 Terabytes per host server and up to 12 terabytes per virtual machine.
  • VHDX Size: Up to 64 Terabytes.
  • Virtual Machine: Up to 1,024 per host machine.
  • Virtual machine processors: Up to 240 virtual machine.

* Inter Processors have a feature called Hyperthreading, which enables a single core to process two threads simultaneously when Hyper-V is running. Intel processors have two LPs per core when Hyper-v is running and one LP per core when Hyper-v is not running. AMD Processors have a one LP per core.

Determining appropriate Windows Server 2016 edition per Workloads:

Questions to ask:

  • What roles and features will you need to run on the server?
  • How will you obtain license for the server?
  • Will you be running Windows Server 2016 on a virtual or physical machine?

Windows Server 2016 Editions:

  • Windows Server 2016 Datacenter, This is intended to large and powerful servers in highly virtualized environment. It allows for unlimited number of operating system environment (OSEs) or Hyper-v Containers. (OSE is used to describe Windows instances running on a computer. An OSE can be physical or virtual machine. An example would be a server running hyper-v as well as one virtual machine, each would be considered an instance.) Datacenter Features include: Storage Space Direct, Storage Replica, Shielded VM and a new networking stack with additional virtualization options.
  • Windows server 2016 Standard can run two OSE, and it has the same core set of features as the Datacenter. It lacks the storage and networking features.
  • Windows Server 2016 Essentials: Same features as in the Datacenter and Standard, however it does not include the Core installation option, It supports only one OSE and a maximum of 25 users and 50 devices.
  • Windows Server 2016 Multi-point Premium Server, It used for academic licensing and enable multiple users to access a single server installation.
  • Windows storage server 2016 server: The storage server edition is bundled as part of a dedicated storage hardware solutions.
  • Windows Hyper-V server 2016: Available at not cost, it’s only a hypervisior without GUI.

Storage Space Direct: We can use inexpensive drive arrays to create high-availability storage solutions without the need for expensive arrays or controllers with built-in storage management intelligence. The intelligence is incorporated into the OS enabling the use of JBOD(just bunch of disks arrays) .

Storage Replica: Provides-Storage-agnostic, synchronous, asynchronous volume replication between local or remote servers using SMB Version 3 protocol.

Shielded Virtual Machine: Provides VM’s with from compromised admins that have access to Hyper-V host computer by encrypting the VMs state and its virtual disks.

Network controller: Provides a central automation point for network infrastructure configuration, monitoring, and troubleshooting.

Performing a mass deployment:

For a mass operating system deployment, you can use a server-based technology, such as Windows Deployment Services (WDS), to deploy image files automatically. WDS enables you to create boot images as a way of deploying the WDS boot image is to use the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) feature included with most network interface adapters. PXE is built into the adapter’s firmware and enables a computer with no operating system to discover a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server on the network and request a configuration from it. The DHCP server supplies the client with the IP address of a WDS server, which the client then uses to connect to the server and download a boot image. The client system can then boot from that image and run a WDS client program that initiates the operating system installation.

Installing Powershell to install roles:

The basic syntax of the cmdlet is as follows:  install-windowsfeature -name featurename [- includeallsubfeature] [-includemanagementtools] To install a role or feature, you must use a PowerShell session with administrative privileges. Then, you must determine the correct name to use for the role or feature you want to install. To do this, you can list all of the available roles and features available in Windows by running the Get-WindowsFeature cmdlet, the first part of which is shown in Figure 1-11.

You can also add the IncludeAllSubFeature parameter to install all of the subordinate components for a role. Unlike Server Manager, which automatically includes the management tools associated with a role when you install it, the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet does not. If you want to install the Microsoft Management Console snap-in or other tools used to manage a role or feature, you must add the IncludeManagementTools parameter on the command line.

*In Windows Server 2016, you can no longer add or remove the GUI elements after the operating system installation. In addition, there is no Minimal Server Interface option, as in Windows Server 2012 R2. This means that, at installation time, you must choose between a full graphical interface, similar to that of Windows 10, and a command line only.

When you select the Windows Server Core installation option, you get a stripped-down version of the operating system. There is no Taskbar, no Explorer shell, no Server 39 Manager, no Microsoft Management Console, and virtually no other graphical applications. However, the advantages of running servers using the Server Core option are several, including the following: Hardware resource conservation Server Core eliminates some of the most memory- and processor-intensive elements of the Windows Server 2016 operating system, thus devoting more of the system resources to running applications and essential services. Reduced disk space Server Core requires less disk space for the installed operating system elements, as well as less storage space devoted to memory swapping, which maximizes the utilization of the server’s storage resources. Fewer updates The graphical elements of Windows Server 2016 are among the most frequently updated features, so running Server Core reduces the number of updates that administrators must apply. Fewer updates also means fewer server restarts and less downtime. Reduced attack surface The less software there is running on the computer, the fewer entrances there are available for attackers to exploit. Server Core reduces the potential openings presented by the operating system, increasing its overall security

Configuring Server Core:

Immediately after the installation, however, you might be forced to perform some basic post-installation tasks interactively, such as configuring the network adapter, renaming the computer, and joining the server to a domain

With this information, you can select the interface of the adapter you want to configure and use a command like the following to configure it: new-netipaddress -interfaceindex 6 -ipaddress 192.168.0.200 – prefixlength 24 -defaultgateway 192.168.0.1

The functions of the command line parameters are as follows:

interfaceindex Identifies the adapter in the computer to be configured, using index numbers displayed by the Get-NetAdapter cmdlet.

ipaddress Specifies the IP address to be assigned to the adapter.

prefixlength Specifies the subnet mask value to be associated with the IP address. The numeral specifies the number of network bits in the IP address. For example, a prefixlength value of 24 is the equivalent of a subnet mask value of 255.255.255.0.

defaultgateway Specifies the IP address of a local router that the computer should use to access other networks.

To configure the DNS server addresses for the adapter, you use the SetDnsClientServerAddress cmdlet, as in the following example: Set-dnsclientserveraddress -interfaceindex 6 -serveraddresses (“192.168.0.1″,”192.168.0.2”)

To rename the computer and join it to a domain, you can use the Add-Computer cmdlet, as in the following example: add-computer -domainname adatum.com -newname ServerB – credential adatum\administrator

The functions of the command line parameters are as follows:

domainname Specifies the name of the domain that you want the computer to join

newname Specifies a computer name that you want to assign to the computer

credential Specifies the domain and account names for a domain user with domain join privileges

Manage Windows Server Core installations using Windows PowerShell, command line, and remote management capabilities

As an alternative to the Add-Computer PowerShell cmdlet, you can use the Netdom.exe tool from the command prompt to rename a computer and join it to a domain. To rename a computer, you use the following command:  netdom renamecomputer %computername% /newname: newcomputername, To restart the computer after changing its name, you use the Shutdown.exe tool, as follows: shutdown /r.  To join a computer to a domain using Netdom.exe, use the following command: netdom join %computername% /domain: domainname /userd: username /passwordd:* In this command, the asterisk (*) in the /password parameter causes the program to prompt you for the password to the user account you specified.

In Windows Server 2016, the Windows Remote Management (WinRM) service is enabled by default, so you can create a remote PowerShell session using the New-PsSession cmdlet, as in the following example: new-pssession -computername rtmsvrd

In this example, Rtmsvrd is the remote Server Core computer you want to manage. 43 Running this command creates a connection to remote computer and assigns it an ID number as shown in Figure: